Posted by: amgy | February 8, 2008

COMPARATIVE METHOD

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oleh :

Adeng Muchtar Ghazali

Abstract

Comparing approach on religion inspect i used by scientist for along ago, and in many applicants. Generally, comparative method is study by analytic for decide any factors of similarly and contradictions in special pattern from deportment. Mission of phenomenology’s incriminate on comparative method is for understanding of religious phenomena by comparative analytic.
In religion inspect, Philosophical system is just make conclusion from any facts that collecting by religion history and compared by religion comparing. Comparative approach on religion inspect is how to understanding about religion history’s aspect to compare one religion with the other religion and then decide a fundamental structure from religiousness experiences and concepts by choosing and analyzing of religions similiarity and disparity.

Keywords:
Religious, Comparative, Method, Understanding

A. Introduction
Generally, comparative method is study by analytic for decide any factors of similarly and contradictions in special pattern from deportment. Usually, in this method, cross culture method and historical method is incriminated. This method including procedure to explain of similiarity and disparity that played by phenomena, and religious phenomena placed as analog.
Mission of phenomenology’s incriminate on comparative method is for understanding of religious phenomena by comparative analytic. On the contrary, phenomenology always incriminate comparative as way for interpretation from religious expression.
Comparative approach on religion inspect is how to understanding about religion history’s aspect to compare one religion with the other religion and then decide a fundamental structure from religiousness experiences and concepts by choosing and analyzing of religions similiarity and disparity.
In religion inspect, Philosophical system is just make conclusion from any facts that collecting by religion history and compared by religion comparing.
Lammert Leertouwer said that in many country’s in Europe, religion comparing have to got institutionally principle. But this fact, unmeaning that religion comparing is not theological discipline only, because religion comparing is one of scholarly discipline, that insist a “agnosticism methodology”.
Comparing approach on religion inspect is used by scientist for along ago, and in many applicant of it, Comparing approach is part of religious comparative method study (religionswissenschaft-science of religion). Exactly sporadically, terminology of religions scientist was used for along time ago, that is used by Abbe Prosper Leblanc in 1852, Steifelhagen in 1858, etc.
The words of Science of religion firstly used by Max Muller (1823-1900). He uses this word just for indication that new discipline is loosing from religion philosophy and theology. But when development is grow with fast in every country in the world, needed a new terminology with international formulate for more popular and easy to understand by everyone in the world. So the therminolgy of Religionswissenschaft translated in English, with five terminologies, four terminologies were popular, and one is alternative terminology. The five of terminology are:
First, Science of Religion, this terminology is transfering method from terminology religionswissenschaft. In germany language, Wissenschaft have double meaning, there are as science and knowledge.
Second, Comparative Religions, and Comparative Study of Religions. This terminology used by Max Muller with comparative philology terminology, which borrowed from language science. this terminology spread to all the world included Indonesia also with the name Religion Comparative science. The next generation this terminology used as the way for comparing all of the religion, pretend to look for the superior and true of religion between all the religions.
Third, Phenomenology of Religion. Originate from one of the religion studi method, is fenomenologi method. This method is very nearby with Husserlian’s philosophy phenomenology by means of epoche and eidetic vision. Truly terminology of phenomenology was declarationed since after Edmund Husserl era, that is by Chantaphie de la Saussaye, with the book Lehrbuch der Religionsgeschichte (1887).
Fourth, History of Religions (Plural type always), and then marked be a formally name for International Association for the History of Religions (IAHR), declarated in Denhag at 1951. utilising of ‘history’ as religion study personification have some considerations. Firstly, religion study have to “scholarly, objectify and empirically”. Secondly, Religion study direct to past religion reality. Thirdly, terminologies of ‘history’ have more humanism sciences connotations than another sciences discipline.
Fifth, there are some of the alternative names for religion study, are: Study of World’s Religions (Sastraprateja, Perb.Agama di Indonesia, INIS, 1990); Typology of Religions (H. Barzais); Religiology (R.Pummer); and Ecology of Religion (A.Hulkrantz).

B. Religio-Saintifik
According to Wach, Unique characteristic of religionswissenschaft, have to do not philosophically or scholarly, but have to “religio-scholarly” with self method. Basic point of religionswissenschaft is “religion history’s facts”, so position of them existing between ‘normatif’ discipline in one side and ‘descriptive’ disciplines in other side. According Wach to, religionswissenschaft discipline was divide to historic and systematic division. In historic division contain about general religions history, and specific religions history. Meanwhile in systematic division contain about religion inspects with phenomenologist, comparative, sociologic, dan psychological.
But in Dutch, some religion comparative science professors reveal that they are override about phrase of religion comparative study’s terminology. Because there are very emphasize to comparative aspect only, and explanation aspect is forgotten.
Comparative inspection object is religious and doctrines. Not just developing religions only, but classic of religions also. Herodotus (484-425 SM), historian Greece, one of the scientist that learning about religion with investigation, analysis and comparing religion structure from orthodox nation. One of he’s theory is “The Equivalence of Gods”. This theory is expression about anomalous the name and attribute of gods, but the function is same, because of that the different of gods are same.
Aristides, first century Christian apologias personage was interpretational about relation of gentile, Jewish and Christian, although they are the name is different, but basically they are bible adherent and Christian advocate.

C. The Truth of Religion and Comparative Method
The core from religion comparative science is decide the religion truth by learning, understanding and comparing the religion with some method and approach.
The meaning of truth in this case is not for claim the truth of religion, because of basically and general generically that religion is truth. So, the mean of “method” in religion comparative science is the way to gain and comprehend the religion truth with empirically reality. Meanwhile, “approach” in this case is scholarly attitude (perception) from someone have to showing and find the scholarly truth .
In comparative study, religion inspects just doctrines explanation only. These explanations have to do by neutrally and objectively. The mean is everyone certainly to expression the doctrine of his religion. The religion and life’s religious is always be a central inspection object for researcher from different various sciences discipline backgrounds. Of course, the inspectional should be based by science objectively.
Religion Comparative Method talking, Wach divide to two contradictive part, there are :
First, the method have to use in religion study is sui generis, the method absolutely can’t compared by another methods in many other sciences.
Second, with without clarification set of problem researching, consistently keeping that only one the valid method is scholarly method.
For Joachim Wach, the two approaches is not accurate. In modern religion study science, begin to introduce a syntheses. The truth is singular, and the world is singular to, so the knowledge should be singular also. Because of that, the method have to fulfill two provise:
first, the method must popular. Like Aristoteles, Aquinas and Leibniz want.
Second, the method has to congruent with a subject researching. The provise give a character to the first principle, that is “integrated principle method”.
Beside two types of method, Wach develop historico-fenomenologis method also . This method can we see from the inspect content, like hermeneutic, sociology of religi, and studi religious experience study. Hermeneutic, as operational step from historico-fenomenologis method, is important way to open and showing the hidden of fact’s religious and in history can’t understand yet.
The methods popular that often used for religion comparative science are:
First, “comparative” method, this method is congruent with scope case of inspect object, its not one religion only but many of religions.
Second, “understanding” method, like Gerardus van der Leeuw want, especially in operational step that have to understanding the someone’s religion with deeply and more objective, so auxiliary method is needed. Claas J. Bleeker, calling the auxiliary method with “epoche” theory, to defer of value judgement theory.
According A. Mukti Ali, on the others religious inspect, there are two operational steps, are:
First, by interactive experience, there is a one of the way to build a sense of sympathy with the other of religion adherent.
Second, transferring of our understanding and implementation religious with other of religion adherent experience. So, we will be understand the reason why and what are they do it. This way is using for not use epoche theory.

D. Religious Objectivity
The truth of religious on comparative study inspecting, methodologically, religion is always being a real phenomena, although the religious is abstract and subjective.
The subjectivity of religious, be objectives in many phrase have special structures can be understood. Study toward those structures is main job in religious comparative science.
As an empirically fact. The religious that human believed is never estimated with right and wrong value, but just implementation of religious expression in community and daily life. J.B. Banawiratma said, that something looking in that expression of religious is socially interpretation context only.
On religious comparative method, mostly depend of someone’s opinion about religiousness, and not just about his religion only. Usually, religious comparative is using to look a content and characteristic value from the other religions.
One thing have to remember, religious comparative is not “tools” for keep somebody’s religious, but religious comparative is “instrument” to understanding of religious function and characteristic, as a “identity” of human.
Joesoef Sou’eb gives an operational illustration about how to use this comparative method. Comparative method can use with something is practically. For example assorting primary problem on religious comparative, like universe, humanity, liturgy, salvation, eschatology, and else’s. The study process of this matter are two kinds, there are:
First, the comparative study must to follow the ordinal from the main matter first, and directly to explain one by one about all of religiousness matter. This way having some “plus” values, because everybody directly get values from one religious between other religiousness comparatives. The weakness from this method is someone can’t evaluate about growth and evolution for one of religious directly, be caused the religious knowledge is, not intact, piece only.
Second, the character from this method is researching for one’s religious growth and evolution according a story. The “plus” value from this method is everyone can evaluate the ”inside and outside” main of one’s religious directly. The weakness from this method is comparative from one’s religious is get indirectly.

E. Conclusion
Comparative method is study by analytic for decide any factors of similarly and contradictions in special pattern from deportment. Mission of phenomenology’s incriminate on comparative method is for understanding of religious phenomena by comparative analytic.
Comparative approach on religion inspect is how to understanding about religion history’s aspect to compare one religion with the other religion and then decide a fundamental structure from religiousness experiences and concepts by choosing and analyzing of religions similiarity and disparity.

Bibliography
A.K. Malefijt, Religion and Culture, and Introduction to Antropology of Religion, the Mac Millan Company, London, 1968, p. 41
Ahmad Norma (ed), Metodologi Studi Agama, Pustaka Pelajar, Yogyakarta, 2000, p. 127
Burhanudin Daya, (ed), Agama dan Masyarakat, IAIN Yogyakarta, 1993, p. 187
Farichin Chumaidy, Diktat Ilmu Perbandingan Agama, Ushuluddin faculty, UNISBA, Bandung, 1982, p.9
H. Leonard Beck, (ed), Ilmu Perbandingan Agama di Indonesia dan Belanda, INIS, Jakarta, 1992, p. 1
Joachim Wach, Ilmu Perbandingan Agama, (translated), Rajawali, Jakarta, 1984, p.7
Joesoef Sou’eb, Agama-Agama Besar di Dunia, Pustaka Al-Husna, Jakarta, 1983, p. 15
Mariasusai Dhavamony, Fenomenologi Agama, (translated), Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1995, p. 40
Mircea Eliade and Joseph M. Kitagawa, (ed), the History of Religions, Essays in Methodology, the University of Chicago Press, London, 1959, p. xxiii
Mukti Ali, Ilmu Perbandingan Agama di Indonesia, IAIN Yogyakarta, 1986, p. 5
Sastrapratedja, Manusia Multi Diomensional, Gramedia, Jakarta, 1985, p. 34
Suparlan, Pengertian Budaya: Ilmu-Ilmu Sosial dan Pengkajian Masalah-Masalah Agama, Depag RI, Jakarta, 1982, p. 6
Taufiq Abdullah, (ed), Metodologi Penelitian Agama, Tiara Wacana, Jakarta, 1989 p. xii


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